## Pre-mission critical thinking skills training

You will undertake pre-mission training to ensure you have the critical thinking skills necessary to complete your mission.

To get started, read carefully through the pre-mission critical thinking skills training learning goals below. Make sure you tick each of the check boxes to show that you have read all your Pre mission critical thinking skills training learning goals.

As you read through the learning goals you may come across some words that you haven’t heard before. Please don’t worry. By the time you finish your pre-mission critical thinking skills training you will have become very familiar with them!

You will come back to these learning goals at the end of your pre-mission critical thinking skills training to see if you have confidently achieved them.

## Activity 1.1.1 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Identify prior knowledge about Mars

### Introduction

As Commander Ripley stated in Mission video 1: Your mission brief, you are one of the space pioneers who will work with S.P.A.C.E Mission Control on an important mission to create a human habitat on Mars.

You probably have a million questions right now. And you’ve probably already got some really awesome ideas on what your human habitat would look like.

But let’s get down to the basics first and try to think about what it would actually feel like to stand on a planet that isn’t our planet Earth.

Take a minute to close your eyes and use all your senses to fully imagine what it may be like to be the first human to stand on the surface of Mars.

What would you see?

• Mars has two moons and is further away from the Sun than Earth. What would the sky look like?
• Mars is described as the red planet and has no water. What would the surface look like?

What would you hear?

• There is no life but Mars does have big dust storms. What noises would you hear around you?
• You would be wearing a spacesuit with a helmet. Would you hear your footsteps or your breathing?

How would you feel?

• Earth - and your family and friends - would be millions of kilometres away. How does that make you feel?
• You are experiencing something no human has ever experienced before. How does that make you feel?

It’s really quite amazing to think about isn’t it?

Now it’s time to get started on the first of your pre-mission critical thinking skills training activities where you will create your own mind map on Mars.

## Cover page: Big History Junior journal

Throughout your Mars Mission you will need to keep a Big History School Junior journal to keep all your Mars Mission research in the one location. Write your name and class on the Cover Page: Big History School Junior journal worksheet and paste it onto the front of the notebook or folder you will be using during your Mars Mission.

## Mind map: Mars

You are going to be creating a mind map to identify what you already know about Mars.

A mind map is simply a way to visually organise your thoughts about a subject. It can include written ideas, diagrams, keywords and it can be colour coded.

Your teacher will instruct you whether you will complete your Mars mind map on your own or in a small group/pair.

On the Mind map: Mars worksheet, you will see that the word ‘Mars’ is in the centre circle. It is surrounded by four circles with questions in them.

Each question has three connected circles. Use the connected circles to write down at least three things you already know in answer to each question. If you have more than three pieces of information for a question, draw a line and another connecting circle to write it in.

Confused? Take a look at the Mind map: Venus example in Helpful Resources.

Now it’s your turn. And remember, a mind map is just a way to visually organise what you think you already know about Mars so include anything you think of because there is no right or wrong at this point.

1.1.1 - Mind Map - Venus

## Activity 1.1.1 Review

Conclusion
If you are part of a class, your teacher will lead a class discussion where you and your classmates will share some of the information you included in your Mars mind maps.

And please ensure that you file your Mars mind map safely as you will need to refer back to it later in this Mission Phase.

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 1.1.2 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Understand what is meant by ‘creative thinking’

### Introduction

‘Thinking creatively’ probably doesn’t sound like a very important or exciting skill to have as a Mars pioneer but some of the most important discoveries and inventions in human history started with a very curious mind and some seriously creative thinking…

Mission video 2: Thinking creatively introduces you to a creative thinking process which can help you answer the important Mission question, “How could humans live on Mars?’

## Mission video 2: Thinking creatively

While you watch Mission Video 2 look out for the answers to the following questions:

1. 1. What does it mean to be a creative thinker?
2. 2. What is brainstorming?
3. 3. What is a KWHLAQ chart?

Your teacher will instruct you whether you will answer the questions: as part of a class discussion; as a group/paired discussion; or independently by writing your answers in your Big History Junior journal (if you have been provided with one).

## Activity 1.1.2 Review

### Conclusion

Now that you are familiar with what a KWHLAQ chart is, you will have the opportunity in the next activity to create your own chart in preparation for your Mars Mission.

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 1.1.3 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Identify prior knowledge about Mars
• Understand what is meant by ‘creative thinking’
• Use a KWHLAQ chart to creatively think about how humans could live on Mars

### Introduction

You do a little bit of creative thinking every day even if you don’t realise it.  All we are doing in this activity is going through the creative thinking process step-by-step...

You will create your own KWHLAQ chart to help you plan how to answer the important Mission question, ‘How could humans live on Mars?’

## Chart: KWHLAQ

KWHLAQ is quite a mouthful!  Have you worked out why this chart is named that?

The KWHLAQ stands for:

• What do you KNOW?
• What do you WANT to know?
• HOW will you find out?
• What have you LEARNED?
• What ACTION will you take?
• What further QUESTIONS do you have?

Your teacher will instruct you whether you will complete your KWHLAQ chart on your own, as a class or in a small group/pair.

It’s important before you begin working on your chart to take a look at the question you need to answer in order to complete your Mission: “How Could Humans Live on Mars?”

Keep this question in mind as you complete the first three columns in the chart:

Column 1: What do we KNOW?

This is where you should refer back to the Mars mind map you completed earlier and write down what you already know about Mars.  Also write down what you know about human needs.

Column 2: What do we WANT to know?

Completing column 1 should have made you realise that there is a lot more you need to know before you can answer the question, ”How Could Humans Live on Mars?”  For example, could we grow our own food on Mars?

Write down all your questions in this column.

Column 3: HOW will we find out?

Books and magazines
• Who is the author? Are they an expert?
• When was it published? There are lots of new discoveries being made in space!
Search Engines
• Use keywords to get more relevant results e.g. Mars temperature
• Use a kid-friendly search engine like “Kiddle” or add “for kids” at the end of your search phrase
• Don’t just click on the first link - read through the results list before choosing
Websites
• Look for websites which end in .edu or .gov as they are usually more reliable
• Check the last time the website was updated
• Go to more than one website to double-check facts
Experts
• What type of experts would know more about the topic eg. astronomers? biologists?
• Find out which organisations are considered experts eg. NASA for space travel

The remaining three columns of your KWHLAQ chart will remain empty for now.  You will come back to them as you get closer to completing your Mission.

1.1.3 - Chart - KWHLAQ Example

## Activity 1.1.3 Review

### Conclusion

Once you’ve completed the first 3 columns of your KWHLAQ chart you should have it on display somewhere where you can keep referring back to it. As you find out more information on Mars you could add it to your “What do we Know?” column. And if you think of any more questions you could add it to your “What do we Want to know?” column.

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 1.1.4 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Identify different types of expert knowledge
• Understand the need to draw on a range of expert knowledge

### Introduction

A very important critical thinking skill is to be able to think across disciplines. By disciplines, we basically mean different areas of knowledge. This skill helps us to see things in new, deeper and interconnected ways.

Mission video 3: Thinking across disciplines introduces you to the different types of experts who will share their knowledge with you and guide you through your Mars Mission.

## Mission video 3: Thinking across disciplines

While you watch Mission video 3: Thinking across disciplines look out for the answers to the following questions:

1. 1. What is an expert?
2. 2. Can you name at least 4 different types of experts?
3. 3. Why is it useful to refer to more than one type of expert?

Your teacher will instruct you whether you will answer the questions: as part of a class discussion; as a group/paired discussion; or independently by writing your answers in your Big History School Junior journal (if you have been provided with one).

## Activity 1.1.4 Review

### Conclusion

Now that you understand what an expert is, have a think about your own strengths and interests and imagine what type of expert you would like to be if you were one of the first 12 inhabitants on Mars.

You could be one of the four scientists mentioned in the Mission video or you could be something else entirely. For example, if you love to cook, you could be the first Martian Chef! You would have the very important job of feeding the first Mars inhabitants.

In Helpful Resources you will find some NASA Mars Explorer posters which may inspire you.

https://mars.nasa.gov/multimedia/resources/mars-posters-explorers-wanted/#FAQ

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 1.1.5 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Identify different types of expert knowledge
• Understand the need to draw on a range of expert knowledge

### Introduction

In Mission video 3: Thinking across disciplines you learned about the importance of drawing on a wide range of expert knowledge to gain a more complete understanding of a topic.

In fact, putting together information about something from different experts is a little bit like putting together a jigsaw puzzle. It’s only when you have all those different views that you really get the whole picture.

So which experts would you rely on to find out about Mars? And what sorts of questions do you think they’d be able to help you answer?

In this activity you will put the pieces of a Mars jigsaw puzzle together to create an image of Mars.

## Jigsaw puzzle: Mars

Each piece in your Mars jigsaw puzzle has an essential question and a description of the expert who would be able to answer that question.

Once you cut out the pieces and stick them together in place, you need to complete the phrase “Ask a _______” by writing the name of the expert who could answer the question on each piece. You can then write ‘Mars’ in the circle in the middle of the jigsaw and colour in the circle to look like the planet Mars.

Finally, write a sentence at the bottom of your jigsaw page stating what type of expert you would like to be if you were one of the first 12 inhabitants on Mars and why.

1.1.5 Jigsaw puzzle - Mars example

## Activity 1.1.5 Review

### Conclusion

This is a good time to refer back to your KWHLAQ chart. Have you thought of any more questions you would like to know the answers to? If so, you can add them to your “What do we want to Know?” column. And do you now have some more ideas for the “How will we find out?” column? What type of experts could you ask?

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 1.1.6 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Understand what is a ‘claim’

### Introduction

‘Claims’ may not be a word you use every day, but you make claims every day and you’re surrounded by claims every day.

Someone is making a claim when they present information as fact - not an opinion. They are asking you to trust that they have some reliable information or knowledge that you don’t.

In this introductory activity, you will play a game of Snap Judgement where you have to decide whether various claims are true or false. Once you learn more about claim testing in the next activity you will have an opportunity to come back to your ‘snap judgements’ and review your responses.

## Claims: snap judgement

If you’re playing this game with other students your teacher may have already placed some ‘claims’ on display for you. Your teacher will ask you to go to each one of the three claims on display and write on a post-it note if you trust the claim or don’t trust the claim with a short sentence explaining why.

If your teacher has instructed you to complete this activity on your own or in a pair, you will use the Claims: snap judgement worksheet. Read each one of the three claims on the worksheet carefully and write down whether you trust or don’t trust each claim. Write at least one sentence for each explaining why.

## Activity 1.1.6 Review

### Conclusion

You will be learning about the important skill of ‘claim testing’ in the next activity. You will then have an opportunity to come back to the snap judgements that you’ve made in this activity, think about your responses and see if you’ve changed your mind.

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 1.1.7 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Understand what is a ‘claim’
• Identify the four claim testers
• Understand how to use claim testers to evaluate a claim

### Introduction

Now that you know what a claim is, you are ready to learn how to use a strategy which will help you decide which claims can be trusted, which ones can be ignored and which ones should be investigated further.

Mission video 4: Thinking about claims introduces you to the very important skill of claim testing. This will help you not only in preparing for your Mars Mission but it is also a skill you will be able to use in your everyday life!

## Mission video 4: Thinking about claims

While you watch Mission video 4: Thinking about claims look out for the answers to the following questions:

1. 1. What is a ‘claim’?
2. 2. What are the four claim testers?

Your teacher will instruct you whether you will answer the questions: as part of a class discussion; as a group/paired discussion; or independently by writing your answers in your Big History School Junior journal (if you have been provided with one).

## Activity 1.1.7 Review

### Conclusion

So now that you know more about claim testers, go back to the claims you responded to in the Snap Judgement game and try to work out which claim tester you were using when you decided to trust each claim or not:

• Were you using your intuition (gut feeling)?
• Were you using your logic (thinking carefully to see if it made sense)?
• Were you relying on evidence? Have you seen proof to support/deny the claim?
• Were you using authority? Have you heard an expert make these claims before?

If you are part of a class, your teacher will lead a class discussion where you and your classmates will share your responses to the claims, analyse which claim testers you used and decide whether you have since changed your minds about any of the claims.

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Pre-mission critical thinking skills training

You undertook some important pre-mission training to ensure you have the critical thinking skills necessary to complete your mission.

Now it’s time to revisit your Pre-mission critical thinking skill training learning goals and read through them again carefully.

As you read each learning goal, tick the check box beside it if you are confident you have achieved that learning goal.

You’ll find that some learning goals are harder to achieve than others. If you find that there are learning goals that you’re not confident you’ve achieved yet, you may like to re-watch the Mission video which relates to that learning goal and/or ask your teacher for help.