## What are the Goldilocks Conditions for life?

In What are the goldilocks conditions for life? you will learn all about the Goldilocks conditions for life, how scientists believe life began on Earth and how natural selection and evolution have led to the diversity of plants and animals we have today.

To get started, read carefully through the What are the goldilocks conditions for life? learning goals below. Make sure you tick each of the check boxes to show that you have read all your What are the goldilocks conditions for life? learning goals.

As you read through the learning goals you may come across some words that you haven’t heard before. Please don’t worry. By the time you finish What are the goldilocks conditions for life? you will have become very familiar with them!

You will come back to these learning goals at the end of What are the goldilocks conditions for lief? to see if you have confidently achieved them.

## Activity 3.2.1 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Use claim testers to evaluate claims about living things

### Introduction

You may remember from your pre-mission critical thinking skills training that a ‘claim’ is information that someone presents as fact - not an opinion. They are asking you to trust that what they are saying is based on reliable information.

You’ve probably heard a lot of claims about life and living things. Well before you explore life on Earth any further, you’re going to play a game of Snap Judgement. In this game you will have to decide which claims about ‘life’ you trust and which ones you don’t trust. Once you watch Mission video 16: Life and how it began in the next activity, you will have an opportunity to come back to your ‘snap judgements’ and review your responses.

## Claims: snap judgement life worksheet

Do you remember what the four claim testers are? If you need a reminder, take a look at Infographic: the four claim testers in Helpful Resources.

If you’re playing this game with other students your teacher may have already placed some ‘claims’ on display for you. Your teacher will ask you to go to each one of the three claims on display and write on a post-it note if you trust or don’t trust the claim with a short sentence explaining why. You then need to decide which claim tester you are using e.g. intuition, logic, authority or evidence and place your post-it note under that claim tester heading before moving on to the next claim.

If your teacher has instructed you to complete this activity on your own or in a pair, you will use the Claims: snap judgement life worksheet. Read each one of the three claims on the worksheet carefully and write down whether you trust or don’t trust each of the claims. Write at least one sentence explaining why and circle which claim testers you used to come to your decision.

Infographic: the four claim testers

## Activity 3.2.1 Review

### Conclusion

You will learn about life and how it began in the next activity. You will then have an opportunity to come back to the snap judgements that you’ve made in this activity, think about your responses and see if you’ve changed your mind.

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 3.2.2 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Describe the Goldilocks conditions for life on Earth
• Begin to understand the scientific view of how life began
• Understand what biologists study

### Introduction

In the last few activities you learned about how Earth evolved; its layered structure and the tectonic plates which are constantly reshaping the Earth’s crust. You are now ready to learn how all these changes helped to create the 'Goldilocks conditions' for life on Earth.

Mission video 16: Life and how it began explains what the Goldilocks conditions for life are and how scientists believe life on Earth began.

## Mission video 16: Life and how it began

While you watch Mission video 16: Life and how it began look out for the answers to the following questions:

1. 1. What are the Goldilocks conditions for life?
2. 2. What do biologists study?
3. 3. What is the scientific view of how life began on Earth?
4. 4. When did life begin on Earth?
5. 5. What were the first life forms?
6. 6. What are the 6 features all living things have in common?

Your teacher will instruct you whether you will answer the questions: as part of a class discussion; as a group/paired discussion; or independently by writing your answers in your Big History School Junior journal (if you have been provided with one).

So where does ‘life begins’ appear on our History of the Universe Timeline?

Either your teacher will help you identify where it appears on the classroom display or you will refer back to the Timeline: history of the Universe worksheet you completed when you did the “3 big mission phase questions” activity. You will find a copy of Timeline: history of the Universe example in Helpful Resources.

Timeline: History of the Universe Example

## Activity 3.2.2 Review

### Conclusion

So now that you have a clearer idea about how life began on Earth and the differences between living and non-living things, go back to the claims you responded to in the Snap Judgement game in the last activity.

If you are part of a class, your teacher will lead a class discussion where you and your classmates will share your responses to the claims, analyze which claim testers you used and decide whether, after watching Mission video 16: Life and how it began, any of you have since changed your minds about any of the claims and why.

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 3.2.3 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Describe the Goldilocks conditions for life on Earth

### Introduction

When we talk about the ‘Goldilocks conditions’ for life what does it remind you of? Could it be the classic fairytale ‘Goldilocks and the Three Bears’?

The ‘Goldilocks zone’ for life is the zone around a star where the temperature is ‘just right’ – not too hot or not too cold – for liquid water to exist on a planet.

With temperatures as hot as 460oC and a very thick atmosphere full of carbon dioxide, the water on Venus eventually boiled away. With temperatures as cold as -153oC and a very thin atmosphere, the water on Mars either evaporated into space or turned into ice.

As we know from watching Mission video 16: Life and how it began, Earth is the ‘just right’ distance from the Sun for liquid water to exist and it also has an oxygen-rich atmosphere which protects us from extreme heat and cold.

## Comic: Commander Goldilocks and the three planets

In this activity you will create a comic based on the ‘Goldilocks and the Three Bears’ fairytale. In this version however, called ‘Commander Goldilocks and the three planets,’ the main character needs to find the ‘just right’ planet to have a well-deserved break from her intergalactic travels.

Use the Comic: Commander Goldilocks and the three planets worksheet to create your comic. Be as creative as possible as you draw your comic story about Commander Goldilocks’ intergalactic journey. Will she choose super-hot Venus, super-cold Mars or ‘just right’ Earth?

## Activity 3.2.3 Review

### Conclusion

We’re guessing, if your Commander Goldilocks didn’t want to freeze to death or be cooked, that she chose to land on Earth. Would that be right?

Try to imagine that you were there when Commander Goldilocks decided to land on Earth. If she had never been to Earth before, how would you explain to her the difference between living and non-living things and what examples would you provide?

Then be sure to give her a tall refreshing glass of sparkling Earth water!

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 3.2.4 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Identify key developments in the history of life on Earth
• Describe an example of natural selection
• Begin to understand the role of evolution in creating diversity

### Introduction

In the previous activities you learned how scientists believe life began on Earth. In this activity you will learn how life evolved from those first simple microscopic organisms into the amazing diversity of plant and animal life that surrounds us today.

Mission video 17: How life changes uses a timeline to trace the history of life on Earth. It also outlines the theories of natural selection and evolution which explain how life was able to change over time and become so interesting and diverse.

## Mission video 17: How life changes

While you watch Mission video 17: How life changes look out for the answers to the following questions:

1. 1. What were some key developments in the history of life on Earth?
2. 2. Why was the development of the egg so important?
3. 3. What is the scientific view of how dinosaurs became extinct?
4. 4. What is a famous example of natural selection?
5. 5. What does the theory of evolution explain?

Your teacher will instruct you whether you will answer the questions: as part of a class discussion; as a group/paired discussion; or independently by writing your answers in your Big History School Junior journal (if you have been provided with one).

## Activity 3.2.4 Review

### Conclusion

To see an example of natural selection in action, play the ‘Peppermoths’ simulation game in Helpful Resources.

To begin the simulation, click on the circle with the heading, ‘A Bird’s Eye View of Natural Selection.’ Read through the instructions and conduct the experiment in the light forest and then the dark forest. How do the different results in the two different colored forests help to explain the process of natural selection?

http://peppermoths.weebly.com/

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## Activity 3.2.5 Objectives

### Learning Goals

• Describe an example of natural selection
• Begin to understand the role of evolution in creating diversity

### Introduction

Charles Darwin was the first scientist to propose the theory of evolution. When he studied the finches on the Galapagos Islands he realized that finches which lived on different islands had different beaks which matched the particular foods available on the island they lived on.

Darwin came up with the idea that there would have originally been one type of finch but when some finches moved to other islands, the finches which had adaptations that best suited their new habitat were most successful. They survived and passed on those adaptations to the next generation.

Natural selection can be a bit of a tricky idea to get your head around. To help you have a better understanding of Darwin’s example of natural selection - the finches of the Galapagos and their different beaks - you’re going to have some fun with a hands-on demonstration.

## Demo: bird beak adaptation instruction sheet

In this demonstration you will see how some bird beaks are better adapted to eating certain foods than others. You will then reflect on how this explains the process of natural selection.

Your teacher will instruct you whether you will be conducting this demonstration as part of a group or individually.

If you are conducting the demonstration as part of a group you will follow the ‘group’ instructions on the Demo: bird beak adaptation instruction sheet:

Step 1: Form into groups of 4 and collect the tray of ‘food’ for your group as well as 4 different types of ‘beaks.’ Each member of the group should also have their own worksheet and cup.

Step 2: Refer to the Results Table. In the column under the heading ‘Food’ write down the 4 different types of ‘food’ in your tray. In the numbered row under the ‘Beaks’ heading write down the 4 different types of ‘beaks’ your group has.

Step 3: Each person in the group should select a different ‘beak’ and pick up their cup (stomach).

Step 4: Hold your ‘beak’ in one hand and your cup in the other hand. When your teacher says ‘go’ try to pick up as much food as you can with your ‘beak.’

Step 5: When your teacher says ‘stop,’ empty out your cup. Count the number of each type of ‘food’ you were able to pick up with your ‘beak.’ Record the amounts in that ‘Beak’ column.

Step 6: Place all the ‘food’ back into the tray and swap your ‘beak’ with someone else in your group and do the activity again, recording your results.

Step 7: Repeat step 6 two more times until you have tried all four of the ‘beaks.’

Step 8: Answer the reflection questions.

If you are conducting the demonstration individually you will follow the ‘individual’ instructions on the Demo: bird beak adaptation individual instruction sheet:

Step 1: Collect your worksheet, your tray of ‘food,’ your cup and the 4 different types of ‘beaks.’

Step 2: Refer to the Results Table. In the column under the heading ‘Food’ write down the 4 different types of ‘food’ in your tray. In the numbered row under the ‘Beaks’ heading write down the 4 different types of ‘beaks’ you have.

Step 3: Hold your first ‘beak’ in one hand and your cup (stomach) in your other hand.

Step 4: When your teacher says ‘go’ try to pick up as much food as you can with your ‘beak.’

Step 5: When your teacher says ‘stop,’ empty out your cup. Count the number of each type of ‘food’ you were able to pick up with your ‘beak.’ Record the amounts in that ‘Beak’ column.

Step 6: Place all the ‘food’ back into the tray and use your next ‘beak’ to do the activity again, recording your results in that ‘Beak’ column.

Step 7: Repeat step 6 two more times until you have tried all four of your ‘beaks.’

Step 8: Answer the reflection questions.

## Activity 3.2.5 Review

### Conclusion

If you are part of a class, your teacher will lead a class discussion where you and your classmates will share your responses to the reflection questions on the Demo: bird beak adaptation instruction sheet:

• Why were some beaks better than others at picking up particular types of food? Provide an example.
• What would happen to a species of bird whose beak didn’t suit the type of food available in its habitat?
• What would happen to a species of bird whose beak perfectly suited the type of food available in its habitat?
• How is this an example of the process of natural selection?

## Course Glossary

### accretion

The gradual process of matter being pulled together by gravity to make larger and larger clumps of matter.

A special skill or physical feature which helps a species to survive and thrive in its environment. For example, a chameleon changing colour to camouflage itself.

### aerial view

A view of something from the sky looking down.

### agriculture

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals. It is an innovation which has allowed human societies to expand and thrive.

### AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a type of technology which can perceive things, interpret them and make decisions in a similar way to humans.

### amphibian

Animals that evolved from fish to have gills so that they can live in water and also live and breathe on land.

### anthropologist

A scientist who studies humans and human behaviour.

### asteroids

Rocky bodies which are too small to be called planets.

### astronomer

A scientist who studies the Universe and everything in it.

### atmosphere

A thin layer of gases, otherwise known as air, that surrounds Earth and other planets.

### atoms

Tiny particles which make up everything in the Universe.

### authority

Someone who knows a lot about a subject and whose views are respected.

### battery storage

A large battery that stores electrical energy which can then be used when other energy sources are not available.

### Big Bang theory

Theory about how the Universe began 13.8 billion years ago. All matter, time, space and energy came from the Big Bang.

### Big History

The history of the entire Universe beginning 13.8 billion years ago.

### biochemist

A scientist who studies the chemistry of living things.

### biologist

A scientist who studies living things.

### black hole

An area in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it – not even light.

### brainstorming

A creative strategy for thinking about and sharing ideas to solve a challenge or task.

### CBR

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the radiation left over from the initial energy of the Big Bang. It can be seen through powerful space telescopes.

### chemical compounds

Chemical elements which have combined with different chemical elements. For example, hydrogen can combine with oxygen to create the chemical compound water (H2O).

### chemical elements

Pure substances which are made from a single type of atom. For example, Helium.

### chemist

A scientist who studies the substances that make up all the matter in the Universe.

### claim

Information which is presented as fact – not an opinion.

### cognitive

To do with mental activity such as thinking, using logic or remembering.

### collective learning

The human ability to store and share and build on information from generation to generation.

### comets

Balls of frozen gases, rock and dust which orbit the Sun.

### community

A group of people who live together. They help each other and work together to solve problems.

### compare

To look at what two or more things have in common with each other.

### continental drift theory

A theory which states that the Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent, then broke up and slowly drifted apart.

### contrast

To look at how two or more things are different to each other.

### convergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates move towards each other.

### cosmologist

A scientist who studies the structure and history of the Universe.

### creative thinking

Thinking of new ways to solve problems, generate new explanations and/or create something original.

### Critical thinking

Thinking which doesn’t rely on simply accepting what someone has said. It involves questioning, using logic and seeking information from experts before drawing a conclusion.

### cross section

A view of something as if it has been sliced through with a knife.

### digital technology

A term which covers electronic technologies such as computers, tablets and mobile phones.

### disciplines

Different areas of knowledge, for example, natural sciences.

### divergent boundary

Where two tectonic plates slide apart from each other.

### Earth’s core

At its centre, Earth contains a solid inner core and a liquid outer core made of iron and nickel.

### Earth’s crust

The layer that floats on top of the mantle and is made of lighter weight rocks and minerals.

### electrical technology

Technologies which use electricity as their main power source, for example, light bulbs, electric motors and television.

### energy sources

A resource which can be used to provide power. For example, fossil fuels like coal and oil; renewable resources like solar and wind or uranium for nuclear power.

### engineer

An expert who designs and builds machines and structures.

### evidence

Information which may support or disprove a claim.

### evolution

The theory of evolution explains how all the species alive today generated from the first simple life forms on Earth.

### exoplanets

Planets which orbit stars outside of our solar system.

### expert

A person with a special skill or knowledge in a particular area.

### flyby

A path followed by a spacecraft which has been sent close enough to a planet to record scientific data.

### fossil fuels

A carbon- based material such as coal, oil, or natural gas that can be used as an energy source. Fossil fuels were originally formed when the remains of living organisms were buried and broken down by intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

### gas giants

The four large outermost planets – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter – which are mostly made of lighter chemical elements like Hydrogen and Helium.

### geologist

A scientist who analyses rocks, minerals and landforms.

### Goldilocks conditions

The ‘just right’ conditions for life to exist. For example, Earth has the right temperature range, a protective atmosphere and liquid water.

### gravity

The energy force which tries to pull two objects toward each other. The bigger an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.

### Homo sapiens

Modern humans who first appeared 300,000 years ago. We are homo sapiens.

### hunters and gatherers

Human societies which move from place to place to hunt meat and gather fruit and vegetables to survive.

### industrial technology

Machines which operate on a large scale by using energy sources such as water, steam power, oil and coal.

### innovation

Using existing knowledge to come up with new technologies or new ways of doing things.

### intelligent life

Beings from other planets who are able to think, learn and understand. Scientists continue to search for intelligent life out in the Universe.

### intuition

A ‘gut feeling’ that a claim may be true or false.

### Jovian planets

The term Jovian planets refers to the large gassy planets furthest from the Sun - Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. They are also known as gas giants.

### Karman line

An imaginary line 100 kms above the Earth’s crust where it has been internationally agreed the Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

### KWHLAQ chart

A visible framework which uses a series of step-by-step questions to provide guidance through the creative thinking process.

### lander

A spacecraft which has been designed to make a soft landing on a planet or moon etc.

### logic

Carefully thinking about a claim to decide whether it makes sense.

### mantle

The layer that surrounds the Earth’s core and is made of minerals and rocks which slowly flow in a sludge of melted iron.

### matter

Everything around us that has weight and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.

### meteoroids

Otherwise known as shooting stars, meteoroids are small space rocks which burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere.

### module

A self-contained unit which can be joined together with other units to build something more complex.

### multi-planetary species

A species which lives on more than one planet. Humans could become the first known multi-planetary species by establishing a human habitat on Mars.

### multicellular organisms

A complex organism which is made up of more than one cell. For example, animals and plants.

### natural selection

The process by which individuals in a species who have more successful adaptations have more children, therefore passing their successful adaptations on to future generations.

### nuclear fusion

The process of hydrogen atoms being crushed together in a star’s hot centre, releasing heat and energy for billions of years.

### orbiter

A spacecraft designed to orbit a planet and collect scientific data over a long period of time.

### overpopulation

When a population grows too big for the available resources, for example, food. Humans have, in the past, solved potential problems through innovations such as agriculture.

### ozone layer

An invisible layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere which helps to protect us from the Sun’s harmful ultra-violet rays.

### periodic table

A diagram of all the chemical elements in the Universe. It was created by a Russian chemist named Dmitri Mendeleev.

### quasars

Quasi Stellar Objects (Quasars) are believed to be the brightest and most distant objects in the Universe.

The transfer of energy (heat, sound or light) through waves. It can come from cosmic rays or from the Earth. Too much exposure to radiation is harmful to humans.

### redshift

When a star or galaxy moves away, its light waves are stretched out and it has a red glow. This is called redshift and provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.

### robotics

A type of technology which allows machines to be programmed to move and complete set tasks.

### rocky planets

The four small inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – which are mostly made of heavier chemical elements like iron.

### rover

A moving robot which is sent to the surface of another planet to explore, collect scientific data and samples.

### self-sustaining

Being able to exist for a long time without outside help by using resources responsibly.

### single-celled organisms

A simple organism which is made up of only one cell. For example, simple bacteria.

### singularity

The extremely small point which contained the ingredients for everything in the Universe. Everything was crushed together in this singularity at the moment of the Big Bang.

### sol

The name of a solar day on Mars, which is 24.65 hours.

### star

A massive sphere of very hot gas which makes its own light and energy through nuclear fusion.

### supernova

The spectacular explosion which occurs when a massive star dies. It blows chemical elements out into the Universe.

### survive

To be able to continue to live. For example, having enough food to avoid dying of starvation.

### technology

New tools or methods, developed through the use of scientific knowledge, which can be used to solve problems.

### tectonic plates

The large solid-rock moving pieces which make up the Earth’s crust.

### thrive

To be able to grow, be successful and become stronger. For example, humans thrive when they are part of a connected community.

### timeline

A graphic which includes a list of events placed in the order that they happened.

### transform boundary

Where two tectonic plates meet and try to move past each other.

### uranium

A chemical element which is found in the Earth’s crust and is used as an energy source in nuclear power plants.

### venn diagram

A visual graphic which can be used to compare and contrast two different things.

### white dwarf

When a non-massive star runs out of fuel for nuclear fusion it collapses into itself. The leftover core is a compact star called a white dwarf.

### x-ray telescope

A type of telescope which works by receiving x-ray signals. It is mainly used to observe space objects and events such as the Sun, stars and supernovae.

### Yucatan Peninsula

Location of the Chicxulub Crater where a giant meteor landed 66 million years ago. Scientists think this meteor strike led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

### zinc

One of the most common chemical elements in the Earth’s crust.

## What are the Goldilocks Conditions for life?

In What are the goldilocks conditions for life? you learned all about the Goldilocks conditions for life, how scientists believe life began on Earth and how natural selection and evolution have led to the diversity of plants and animals we have today.

Now it’s time to revisit your What are the goldilocks conditions for life? learning goals and read through them again carefully.

As you read each learning goal, tick the check box beside it if you are confident you have achieved that learning goal.

You’ll find that some learning goals are harder to achieve than others. If you find that there are learning goals that you’re not confident you’ve achieved yet, you may like to re-watch the Mission video which relates to that learning goal and/or ask your teacher for help.